the first new MLB rules since '96

Message Bookmarked
Bookmark Removed
Well, the suspended game stuff is long overdue... I can't wait for Carl Everett's first strike for standing outta the box.

Several rule changes in effect for 2007

By Tom Singer /

Taking a red pencil to the game's rules for the first time in more than a decade, MLB's Playing Rules Committee has enacted several changes for the 2007 season.

Relax: It's still the game you know and love. Committeemen haven't messed with the game's guts. In fact, although some of the changes are substantial, the most significant aspect of Friday's announcement is that it introduced the first alterations to the Official Baseball Rules since 1996.

Potentially most consequential is the manner in which games that end in a tie, due to weather or other uncontrollable elements, will be resolved. While previously such games were considered official and replayed in their entirety from the beginning, hence they will be "suspended" and resumed at the point of stoppage.

Addressing issues relating to the pacing of games, fair play -- and even the fairer sex -- other rule changes highlight:

• Time between pitches: The allotment for delivering the ball with no one on base has been reduced, from 20 seconds to 12. The price for each violation is a ball.

• Batter's box presence: Conversely, an automatic strike will be assessed each time a batter violates the rule requiring they keep one foot in the batter's box throughout his at-bat, except for certain game-play conditions -- during which he is still not allowed to leave the dirt area surrounding the plate.

• Ball scuffing: Rule 3.02 now calls for an automatic 10-game suspension for any player who intentionally defaces the ball. (Previously, a first offense led to the pitch being called a ball, a warning to the pitcher and an announcement of violation.)

• No reason for rosin: The same Rule 3.02 now specifically prohibits placing "soil, rosin, paraffin, licorice, sandpaper, emery paper or other foreign substance" on the ball. The rule's penalty phase dictates, "The umpire shall demand the ball and remove the offender from the game. In addition, the offender shall be suspended automatically for 10 games."

• Gender objectivity: The rulebook now includes the disclaimer that references "to 'he,' 'him' or 'his' shall be deemed to be a reference to 'she,' 'her' or 'hers'" where applicable.

In addition, in a significant sidebar, the guidelines by which official scorers perform their duties have been dramatically clarified and specified, at the behest of Phyllis Merhige, MLB vice president of club relations.

The pace-of-game regulations had been in effect on a trial basis during the 2005-06 seasons in the Minor Leagues, where they gained acceptance.

The revisions reflect the collective input of people in the game during the Playing Rules Committee's long layoff from actively voting on possible changes.

These are the first amendments to the rules since interpretation of the strike zone was changed in 1996.

"It's been a number of years since they've taken stock, so they rolled up their sleeves and attacked a number of issues on which they'd been taking notes," said Ed Burns, vice president of MLB's Baseball Operations Administration.

"New members joined the committee in the interim," Burns added, "and the first thing they did in 2005 was institute the experimental pace-of-game rules for the Minor Leagues, with a degree of success."

The treatment of tie games could be quite consequential. Not because tie games have been so prevalent in the past; occasionally, players have logged 163-game seasons due to an official tie, and there have been three ties in pre-1930 World Series games halted by darkness.

But the revised rule will perhaps permit umpires to react more decisively to adverse conditions, knowing that halting a tie game will not force managers to invent pitching for an unexpected extra game.

"The general managers questioned whether it was good policy to replay games," Burns said, "and asked, 'Why not just pick up where they stopped?' This will keep managers from having to use their entire bullpen to cover for an additional game."

Tie games will resume prior to the next scheduled game between the teams, in the visitors' park if no more games are scheduled at the same site. If no more games are scheduled between the teams, the tie would stand unless an outcome would decide a playoff spot -- in which case the game would be replayed in its entirety.

At the very least, the revisions and clarifying examples included in the rule book will enable umpires at all levels to conduct games according to a uniform set of rules.

Said Sandy Alderson, the chief executive officer of the Padres, who doubles as chairman of the Rules Committee: "A number of issues about the playing rules, some more technical in nature than others, had accumulated among umpires, clubs, players and Major League Baseball for some time. The Playing Rules Committee hopes that these amendments will serve to clarify these issues and, by doing so, benefit all who play and umpire the game at all levels."

The changes to Rule 10, governing official scoring, may have the most direct bearing on fans' perception of the coming season by affecting the game's lifeblood: statistics.

For instance, the guidewords for deciding whether to credit a batter with a sacrifice bunt have changed from him being possibly retired on a "perfect play" to "ordinary effort" by the defense.

And fans weary of hearing "defensive indifference" on stolen-base attempts will be heartened to learn that the scorer must now base that call on all game circumstances, not merely on whether someone covered the base or the catcher got off a throw.

Merhige, who oversees all official scorers at big-league parks, had noted several areas that needed to be improved and standardized. The work of the committee she assembled "came up with a substantial rewrite of Rule 10," Burns said.

Dr Morbius, Thursday, 22 February 2007 14:25 (thirteen years ago) link

I always liked the rule in which pitchers have to deliver the ball within 20 seconds with no runners on, but it's never been enforced. I can't see a 12-second rule being realistically workable ... why not leave the rule unchanged and simply enforce it?

NoTimeBeforeTime, Sunday, 25 February 2007 14:34 (thirteen years ago) link

Maybe with the 12 second limit, they'll actually keep the pitchers under 20?

David R., Monday, 26 February 2007 02:25 (thirteen years ago) link

two years pass...

anyone thrilled with Bud's "improve the on-field issues" committee? O BOY, GEORGE WILL

Rage, Resentment, Spleen (Dr Morbius), Tuesday, 29 December 2009 21:39 (ten years ago) link

i wish they had invited some of the brighter young managers in the game. george will can burn, obv. i don't think any players should be in there because baseball players are really dumb.

call all destroyer, Wednesday, 30 December 2009 00:31 (ten years ago) link

two years pass...

so the idea is that would speed up the game?

Porto for Pyros (The Cursed Return of the Dastardly Thermo Thinwall), Friday, 11 May 2012 18:11 (eight years ago) link

does it even happen once every 5 games?

World Congress of Itch (Dr Morbius), Friday, 11 May 2012 18:20 (eight years ago) link

maybe that?! of all the things dumb about baseball i never thought the fake to 3rd was one of them.

Porto for Pyros (The Cursed Return of the Dastardly Thermo Thinwall), Friday, 11 May 2012 18:22 (eight years ago) link

Granderson fell for the banana in the tailpipe?

RHPs will step off the rubber and do the same damn thing. It will probably happen with roughly the same frequency.

Grusin' Gang (Andy K), Friday, 11 May 2012 18:45 (eight years ago) link

two weeks pass...

Neyer predicts that, SOMEDAY, MLB will have to reduce strikeouts and pitching changes to shorten games.

World Congress of Itch (Dr Morbius), Tuesday, 29 May 2012 17:50 (eight years ago) link

Neyer's been on that soapbox for a while. Anyway, the game goes in cycles so I wouldn't assume that strikeouts are some runaway phenomenon that's going to necessitate a significant rule change.

NoTimeBeforeTime, Tuesday, 29 May 2012 20:36 (eight years ago) link

seven months pass...

The fake-to-third/throw-to-first will now be ruled a balk:

The hidden-ball-trick's days are surely numbered.

clemenza, Saturday, 26 January 2013 15:35 (seven years ago) link

ha, i used to do this all the time when i played

k3vin k., Saturday, 26 January 2013 15:53 (seven years ago) link

will cut 30 seconds off the average game

saltwater incursion (Dr Morbius), Monday, 28 January 2013 21:43 (seven years ago) link

I wonder if the LV sports books are offering an o/u on the number of balks that will come of this in 2013.

If it were up to you we'd all be eating tea and strumpets. (WilliamC), Monday, 28 January 2013 21:59 (seven years ago) link

ten months pass...
one month passes...
four weeks pass...

"Just reading through it, the main thing it does is eliminate the malicious collision," Posey told ESPN's "Baseball Tonight" on Tuesday morning. "If the catcher is not set up right on top of the plate, it doesn't allow the runner to run through him."

Posey said the tweak to the rule would not alter the way he prepares for the season as a catcher or as a baserunner.

"For the most part, I think it'll stay pretty much the same," Posey said. "We've never been taught to set up right on top of the plate; we've always been taught to give the runner a little bit of the plate.

"[As a baserunner], my mindset, when I'm coming around third, is to slide hard and late."

Texas Rangers catcher J.P. Arencibia said the new rule "takes away the malicious intent behind the play at the plate."

"It stops guys just going out of their way just to try to dislodge the baseball when [catchers] have the plate," Rangers manager Ron Washington said.

Hall of Famer George Brett, the Kansas City Royals' vice president of baseball operations, said he doesn't like the rule even though he understands that the objective is to reduce injuries.

"I'm not a big fan of it," Brett told "Catchers are taught to put their foot right in front of home plate, and the plays are bang-bang. I like the collision.

"I don't sit around at home at night and think about it. This is the first time I've thought about it since two months ago when somebody told me, 'They can't run into catchers anymore.' I said, 'That sucks. I love that play.'"

images of war violence and historical smoking (Dr Morbius), Tuesday, 25 February 2014 16:02 (six years ago) link

one month passes...
two weeks pass...

I'm sure you've heard, they've fixed this idiotic transfer thing

images of war violence and historical smoking (Dr Morbius), Saturday, 26 April 2014 16:59 (six years ago) link

four months pass...

Rules quiz:

I got 7/10.

NoTimeBeforeTime, Friday, 29 August 2014 07:02 (five years ago) link

one month passes...

In the Arizona Fall League this year:

Hitters must keep at least one foot inside the batter's box at all times, barring exceptions like foul balls, wild pitches, or if the umpire grants him time out.

Pitchers must throw a pitch within 20 seconds of receiving the ball. Clocks posted in each dugout will count down the 20 seconds.

There will be a maximum break between innings of 2:05, with a clock keeping track. Hitters must be in the batter's box by 1:45. If the hitter's not ready, the umpire can call a strike. If the pitcher doesn't throw a pitch by 2:05, the umpire can call a ball.

Teams will have a maximum of 2:30 to change pitchers, with the clock starting as soon as the reliever enters the playing field.

Teams are limited to a maximum of three mound visits per game, not including pitching changes. This applies to trips to the mound by managers, coaches, and catchers.

Pitchers no longer have to deliver four balls for an intentional walk. The manager can simply signal to the umpire.

it's taco science, but it works like taco magic (WilliamC), Wednesday, 1 October 2014 22:33 (five years ago) link

four months pass...
one year passes...

Interference Rule Governing Double Play Slides Clarified;
Mound Visits, Break Times Adjusted in Pace of Game Program

mookieproof, Thursday, 25 February 2016 17:09 (four years ago) link

“People watch the UFC. But they get mad when a guy breaks his ankle at second base because of a hard slide. I don't get it." -- Ian Kinsler, future Fox analyst

Andy K, Saturday, 27 February 2016 17:00 (four years ago) link

one month passes...

mookieproof, Saturday, 2 April 2016 00:13 (four years ago) link

three months pass...

In the 9th last night vs the Mets, Jayson Werth was called out for interference making a late slide on a DP breakup attempt. I'm getting a little sick of Keith Hernandez and Ron Darling grousing about the new unmacho world (Keith sneered about "the geniuses" who effected the rule). Nats GM Rizzo also got into a shouting match with the umps after the game. Tough shit, dinosaurs.

helpless before THRILLARY (Dr Morbius), Friday, 8 July 2016 16:57 (three years ago) link

seven months pass...

oh go fuck yourselves

"Major League Baseball plans on testing a rule change in the lowest levels of the minor leagues this season that automatically would place a runner on second base at the start of extra innings, a distinct break from the game’s orthodoxy that nonetheless has wide-ranging support at the highest levels of the league, sources familiar with the plan told Yahoo Sports."

Supercreditor (Dr Morbius), Thursday, 9 February 2017 12:24 (three years ago) link

What in the blue hell is that all about.

Honestly, I would prefer ties in baseball to a dumb rule change like that.

NoTimeBeforeTime, Thursday, 9 February 2017 13:55 (three years ago) link

“It’s not fun to watch when you go through your whole pitching staff and wind up bringing a utility infielder in to pitch.

gotta disagree with you there, Joe.

Mad Piratical (The Cursed Return of the Dastardly Thermo Thinwall), Thursday, 9 February 2017 15:22 (three years ago) link

i will give you each $1000 if this ever becomes a major league rule

mookieproof, Thursday, 9 February 2017 15:25 (three years ago) link

twist: the free runner on second base is bartolo colon

Karl Malone, Thursday, 9 February 2017 15:28 (three years ago) link

Anthony Castrovince @castrovince
This idea has uncovered quite a number of rookie ball purists.

mookieproof, Thursday, 9 February 2017 16:43 (three years ago) link

first they came for rookie league, and i said nothing

Supercreditor (Dr Morbius), Thursday, 9 February 2017 16:45 (three years ago) link

gonna need one for this, because c'mon

mookieproof, Wednesday, 15 February 2017 18:42 (three years ago) link

that's even worse than jordan walden

Karl Malone, Wednesday, 15 February 2017 18:53 (three years ago) link

no one ever calls traveling anymore

na (NA), Wednesday, 15 February 2017 18:58 (three years ago) link

that is a fucking weird delivery.

Mad Piratical (The Cursed Return of the Dastardly Thermo Thinwall), Wednesday, 15 February 2017 19:12 (three years ago) link

Cater Crapps

Andy K, Wednesday, 15 February 2017 19:42 (three years ago) link

Rob Manfred: There will not be substantive rules changes in 2017 due to "lack of cooperation from the MLBPA."

mookieproof, Tuesday, 21 February 2017 21:13 (three years ago) link

And Manfred then reveals a new chestnut in new labor deal: a unilateral ability by the league to impose rules changes as soon as next yr

Among the rules changes MLB could impose, per Manfred: a pitch clock, a smaller strike zone, fewer visits to the mound, auto-intentional BB.

mookieproof, Tuesday, 21 February 2017 21:14 (three years ago) link

yay lack of cooperation

Supercreditor (Dr Morbius), Tuesday, 21 February 2017 21:35 (three years ago) link

As part of its initiative to improve pace-of-game play, Major League Baseball has approved a change to the intentional walk rule, going from the traditional four-pitch walk to a dugout signal, team and union sources told ESPN's Howard Bryant.

Andy K, Wednesday, 22 February 2017 02:01 (three years ago) link

this will save nearly 12 seconds per game

Karl Malone, Wednesday, 22 February 2017 02:40 (three years ago) link

i'm so pissed that the miggy cabrera intentional walk single will never happen again

call all destroyer, Wednesday, 22 February 2017 03:04 (three years ago) link


na (NA), Wednesday, 22 February 2017 03:13 (three years ago) link

what about the Johnny Bench WORLD SERIES fake-IBB strikeout?


Supercreditor (Dr Morbius), Wednesday, 22 February 2017 03:15 (three years ago) link

i was not alive but that sounds tremendous

call all destroyer, Wednesday, 22 February 2017 03:18 (three years ago) link

"Position players will be prohibited from pitching in games that don’t go into extra innings, unless a team is ahead or behind by at least eight runs." - i mean, fine, but i don't really get why this has to be a rule

na (NA), Thursday, 14 March 2019 15:25 (one year ago) link

I think it has something to do w/ preventing teams from manipulating the new pitcher/position player designations?

heinrich boll weevil (Hadrian VIII), Thursday, 14 March 2019 15:30 (one year ago) link

Elimination of 40 player roster, too!

but i'm there are fuckups (Karl Malone), Thursday, 14 March 2019 18:02 (one year ago) link

Interesting changes! I'm really excited to see how the relief pitcher / opener rules pan out (in 2020).

No more waiver trades too! The trade deadline just got even more exciting.

NoTimeBeforeTime, Thursday, 14 March 2019 18:40 (one year ago) link

The fact that the 40-man Sept. roster expansion doesn't reduce to 28 until 2020 increases Tim Tebow's chances of being a big leaguer.

— JJ Cooper (@jjcoop36) March 14, 2019

mookieproof, Thursday, 14 March 2019 21:06 (one year ago) link

I call this "overmanaging"

a Mets fan who gave up on everything in the mid '80s (Dr Morbius), Thursday, 14 March 2019 21:54 (one year ago) link

playing Seymour Skinner re position players pitching particularly

a Mets fan who gave up on everything in the mid '80s (Dr Morbius), Thursday, 14 March 2019 22:21 (one year ago) link

A commenter asks:

"Not that this will be [a frequent] occurrence but I’m still waiting to see how it will be handled if a team makes two mound visits before a pitcher faces three batters. We would have one rule requiring the pitcher be removed from the game and another stating that he is not allowed to be removed. Is baseball just broken at that point?"

a Mets fan who gave up on everything in the mid '80s (Dr Morbius), Friday, 15 March 2019 22:14 (one year ago) link


What about a pitcher feigning injury? We know it doesn't count as a mound visit. But will it also allow managers to skirt 3-hitter rule? Will said pitcher be obliged to do a DL stint? So much unnecessary dumbness.

heinrich boll weevil (Hadrian VIII), Friday, 15 March 2019 22:32 (one year ago) link

dl il stint

heinrich boll weevil (Hadrian VIII), Friday, 15 March 2019 22:32 (one year ago) link

supposedly the three-batter rule will be implemented in the (affiliated) minors this season. i don't think it will come up too much, though -- there aren't really minor league LOOGYs or convoluted platoon matches because the games don't mean anything

mookieproof, Friday, 15 March 2019 22:57 (one year ago) link

RIP pitch clock?

Van Horn Street, Friday, 15 March 2019 23:32 (one year ago) link

yeah :/

illegal economic migration (Tracer Hand), Saturday, 16 March 2019 00:37 (one year ago) link

seems like overkill

MLB is at Nationals’ camp today workshopping a new communication device for pitchers and catchers. It would allow catchers to type a pitch call (with location) into a watch that is connected to a watch the pitcher is wearing on the mound. An effort to eliminate sign-stealing.

— Jesse Dougherty (@dougherty_jesse) March 18, 2019

mookieproof, Monday, 18 March 2019 14:50 (one year ago) link


heinrich boll weevil (Hadrian VIII), Monday, 18 March 2019 15:01 (one year ago) link

real galaxy brain shit right there

illegal economic migration (Tracer Hand), Monday, 18 March 2019 15:49 (one year ago) link

sign stealing is the best

a Mets fan who gave up on everything in the mid '80s (Dr Morbius), Monday, 18 March 2019 16:15 (one year ago) link

a good way to speed up the game is to have the catcher text the pitcher on his apple watch before every pitch

na (NA), Monday, 18 March 2019 16:18 (one year ago) link

yeah wtf

k3vin k., Monday, 18 March 2019 17:07 (one year ago) link

a century from now MLB will have "evolved" into 162 home run derbies + a midseason "old school" classic w base running, fielding, etc

heinrich boll weevil (Hadrian VIII), Monday, 18 March 2019 18:04 (one year ago) link


mookieproof, Thursday, 28 March 2019 18:05 (one year ago) link

the shark has pearly teeth

a Mets fan who gave up on everything in the mid '80s (Dr Morbius), Thursday, 28 March 2019 18:30 (one year ago) link

apparently the mound will *not* be moved back in the atlantic league this season after all

good news for new long island duck jon niese

mookieproof, Thursday, 11 April 2019 15:54 (one year ago) link

that did seem the most harebrained

d'ILM for Murder (Hadrian VIII), Thursday, 11 April 2019 17:49 (one year ago) link

three months pass...

thought this was a joke; apparently it is not

Atlantic League announce 4 new rules:
Pitcher required to step off the rubber in order to attempt a pickoff.
1 foul bunt is permitted with 2 strikes before strikeout is called.
Check swing rule made more batter friendly.
Batters may steal 1st on any pitch not caught by catcher.

— Bob Nightengale (@BNightengale) July 11, 2019

mookieproof, Thursday, 11 July 2019 18:03 (eleven months ago) link

why WHY

d'ILM for Murder (Hadrian VIII), Thursday, 11 July 2019 18:33 (eleven months ago) link

is the foul bunt rule meant to encourage more bunting? seems odd

also, embarrassed to not know for sure, but i thought a pitcher was already required to step off the rubber before a pickoff?

Karl Malone, Thursday, 11 July 2019 18:39 (eleven months ago) link

If on the rubber, the motion has to be directed entirely toward a single base. i.e. home, first, etc

Li'l Brexit (Tracer Hand), Thursday, 11 July 2019 18:40 (eleven months ago) link

i think i was confused my the rules in my childhood league - i was always required to step off the rubber. i remember vividly because i got several balks called on me and had no idea wtf was going on

Karl Malone, Thursday, 11 July 2019 18:42 (eleven months ago) link

i will never pay to see a "stealing first" league game

a Mets fan who gave up on everything in the mid '80s (Dr Morbius), Thursday, 11 July 2019 19:02 (eleven months ago) link

i guess some of this might somehow yield more ~action on the bases~

insofar as it does, it would also make the games longer

mookieproof, Thursday, 11 July 2019 19:22 (eleven months ago) link

Yeah Karl I remember something similar. the MLB rules allow for that classic leftie pick-off move where they lift their right leg up but you don't know yet which way they're going.

Li'l Brexit (Tracer Hand), Thursday, 11 July 2019 19:28 (eleven months ago) link

one month passes...

I might be in favour of a mercy rule of some sort, mainly because of the risk of someone getting hurt.

NoTimeBeforeTime, Saturday, 17 August 2019 18:24 (ten months ago) link

i wouldn't necessarily be against a mercy rule, but have we actually seen position players get hurt pitching? (and if so, that's on the managers -- no one's forcing them not to use real pitchers)

mookieproof, Saturday, 17 August 2019 20:47 (ten months ago) link

I guess it's more the risk of any player getting hurt in a game where the score is lopsided and the guys just want to get the hell out of there (on both sides). Much like the Buster Posey and Chase Utley rules, one serious injury could be enough to get the rules changed, e.g. Mike Trout getting injured by an errant pitch in a 15-1 game. You can't sit everybody even once the score gets out of hand.

NoTimeBeforeTime, Sunday, 18 August 2019 09:14 (ten months ago) link

what are the best single game comebacks in mlb history?

Jersey Al (Albert R. Broccoli), Monday, 19 August 2019 13:39 (ten months ago) link

i assume if a game ends in, say, the 5th inning on the mercy rule, all the fans get 4 innings worth of ticket price refunded, right? RIGHT?

na (NA), Monday, 19 August 2019 14:32 (ten months ago) link

five months pass...

mookieproof, Wednesday, 12 February 2020 21:08 (four months ago) link

RIP loogies everywhere

Li'l Brexit (Tracer Hand), Wednesday, 12 February 2020 21:13 (four months ago) link

Any difference between these and the three-batter/roster expansion stuff announced last year? Or is this just the formalization of it?

But guess what? Nobody gives a toot!😂 (Karl Malone), Wednesday, 12 February 2020 22:17 (four months ago) link

just the formalization, i think, although the reduction in challenge time is new. i'll be surprised if that one is actually enforced

mookieproof, Wednesday, 12 February 2020 22:28 (four months ago) link

two weeks pass...

Double plays also dropped from .82 per game to .63 per game with the new rules.

With that and the upped SBs would this mean longer games?

Li'l Brexit (Tracer Hand), Thursday, 27 February 2020 16:52 (four months ago) link

oh my yes.

Its big ball chunky time (Jimmy The Mod Awaits The Return Of His Beloved), Thursday, 27 February 2020 16:59 (four months ago) link

idk, i'm not really against this. lefties are pretty much balking on every throw over

saw a (maybe collegiate?) umpire praising it -- with a guy on first in two-man umpire crews, the field ump is out by second and neither he nor the HP ump have an angle to judge a lefty's balk. but if they have to step off the rubber first, that can be seen

mookieproof, Friday, 28 February 2020 00:40 (four months ago) link

Yeah i don’t mind it - seems like rubber should equal “locked in for home”

Li'l Brexit (Tracer Hand), Friday, 28 February 2020 09:16 (four months ago) link

seems fine to me, too. those were the rules in my day (back when i manned the keystone for the san diego padres in the late 70s with my friend and doubleplay partner ozzie smith), and for a very long time i wasn't aware that the rules were any different for pros

But guess what? Nobody gives a toot!😂 (Karl Malone), Friday, 28 February 2020 16:27 (four months ago) link

btw (almost all of) the high-a florida state league will have robo ball/strike calls this year. mlb's current agreement with the umpires, which covers the next five years, allows for its implementation in the majors, so i think we can anticipate that happening before the deal ends, at the latest

more controversially, i think mlb will indeed soon adopt the guy-on-second extra-inning rule; i hope george will's estate is in order

mookieproof, Friday, 28 February 2020 21:19 (four months ago) link

that last wd be abominable

a stopped Will is right once a lifetime

brooklyn suicide cult (Dr Morbius), Friday, 28 February 2020 22:47 (four months ago) link

a stopped Will is right once a lifetime

still waiting for mine

Campaign to move el0n mu5k thread to ILM (Will M.), Friday, 28 February 2020 22:55 (four months ago) link

You must be logged in to post. Please either login here, or if you are not registered, you may register here.